Hello dear colleagues and admirers of the tiny railroad.
Obviously, most of fans of persons interested to construct the railroad model, initially don't put the main functionality which will be realized performed by their work subsequently.
— What will be my model, beautiful or multipurpose?
— And can be both?
— The model with the uncommon scheme for pokatushka?
— Or with the scheme which will be able to allow to equip in the future with ease imitation of devices and algorithms of the real railroad?
The answer at everyone the. And often he is absent just because there are no matters. Creation of the model it partly creativity. And creativity, it seems, shouldn't have borders. In other words: I do as my soul feels. And it is fine, but, with the small reservation. In a railway maketostroyeniye this hypothesis works not absolutely correctly. The main mistake of the beginning designers of railway models also consists in this tiny nuance. As well as in any engineering art, exclusively creative approach to business, leaves no chance to be the satisfied quality of the work performed by a technical component. Also important condition is initial representation of an ultimate goal. And the verified exact calculation of structural elements of future mechanism, will give the chance not to make mistakes at a construction stage. Not all have knowledge of specifications which needs to be put, especially in such difficult design as the railway model. It is rather difficult to provide all complex of the forthcoming work on the model, but it is feasible. It it is necessary not to allow as a result of a large number of unaccounted wishes, and to predict future potential of your model.
In most cases the traveling scheme undertakes the main idea of construction of the model. At forums, as a rule, there are a lot of discussions of regarding traveling schemes. Radiuses, shooters, traveling development. And for what all this? Paramount this what we want to see train service at operation of future model. That inspires us in this show. Perhaps, someone likes long stages, to someone train service on bridges, overpasses or through moving. To someone to behold as the train the enhanced draft climbs up to the mountain pass, and someone wishes to direct the shunting movement at the station. For a possibility of the maximum pleasure from the done work and satisfaction with final result, it is necessary to have a clear idea how it will be possible to carry out wishes on visualization of an idea.
And that if to try to consider a set of conditions in one project. To put more than potentially interesting game elements. Of course, it is possible within one project, but for this purpose there has to be at least, the correct traveling scheme.
If to consider that the model railroad — a toy, it absolutely not so. The railroad in scale, assumes all same fiziko-dynamic conditions, as well as real. Without watching even at that condition that the mass of bodies isn't scaled. Of course, there are admissions in favor of an igrushechnost, but they are accurately regulated and aren't boundless. Ensuring the safe and accident-free movement, when designing the model is a paramount task.
It is clear, to enter in the small area of the island model the correct traveling scheme very difficult task. It is more on forces to design engineers, than ordinary fans who find forces and ambitions independently to be engaged in such hard business as designing of the railway model. In most cases the first experience, the beginning modellers without knowing about operation of trains on the model, and over time having done already powerful part of work, are disappointed, that haven't considered (just on ignorance) some nuances owing to which operation of trains was not so impressionable as that it was expected, and interest it is lost.
For the previous 10 years to this day, I actively am engaged in design of schemes for railway models. From them 2 last years, I work as a part of model studio PAROVOZZO. In practice in detail I study fiziko-dynamic properties of large-scale models of the railroad, and the accumulated empirical experience is realized, through the works performed in model studio. For many years laborious work, it was succeeded to achieve qualitative results in this direction. A large amount of theoretical material, regarding schemes for models of the railroads some of which I want to share with fans of models of the railroad is also acquired.
To studying, scale N (1:160) has been chosen as the main direction, and it isn't casual. For anybody not a secret that the more small scale, the he is more exacting to the accuracy of observance of specifications at design, and in a consequence, and to quality of training of the basis for laying of a rail cloth. All this it is necessary in order that during designing having put a lot of effort, to receive exclusively WORKING mechanism - the railroad model. Here also it turns out that having mastered more tiny scale, to work with large (But also TT) it is much simpler.
Justification of arguments in the choice of the direction on scaling of processes, namely N scale, it is possible to give the following:
— Quality and properties of models of locomotives and cars in scale N, today at very high level.
— It allows to create scenarios for modeling of models, with characteristics approximate to real railway conditions.
— It is easier to transfer and embody dynamic properties of the most large-scale trains, in the smaller used space.
— The most tiny scale allows to visualize from outside better the working processes happening within the game field. At smaller – equal conditions, in comparison with the largest scales (the area, volume, weight).
— When modeling models N of scale, for creation of conditions of the automated movement, it is possible to use electronic accessories in accuracy same, as well as for other scales.
After carrying out a large number of experiments, there was an opportunity to characterize certain conclusions:
— As as without accident and without subjecting to high loadings, it is possible to operate on the model;
— What basic standards it is desirable and it is necessary to use and what it is better to refuse;
— Railway tasks which can be solved on means of models in scale N;
— The purposes satisfactions with game process, necessary for achievement, are formulated;
— Admissible parameters within which, the model, small on dimensions, can are determined is assured to cope with broad functionality of the real railroad.
For design of models, PAROVOZZO studio at which on the small-sized square there is an opportunity to receive the multipurpose model with expanded functionality on train dispatching has been chosen as the main priority direction.
Asking questions of profound studying of dynamic processes of the model railroad, special attention should be paid on the movement of tiny trains. How to make so that models of trains moved on rails smoothly, creating illusion of passing of the real train. It becomes clear that for this purpose in a design of the model it is necessary to put the determined norms and conditions.
On complexity projects can be divided into four groups of designations:
Simple projects with the index: — "U" (Uncomplicated)
Average complexity with the index: — "I (Intermediate)
Difficult projects with the index: — "D" (Difficult)
Very difficult with the index: — "P" (Professional)
In definition the professional multipurpose model of the railroad, in most difficult "P" - classifications are put the following conditions:
1.) The model has to — to have configuration from several levels;
2.) The scheme of the model — to consist of several stations, including long stages between them;
3.) The plan of a way — on which the movement of three and more trains in the passing or counter direction is realized;
4.) The plan of a way — to have the shadow station, with a sediment of trains, and to their departure in the counter direction from arrival on the turning loop (which is whenever possible allowing the area);
5.) Traveling development of stations — has to correspond to logic of design of the real railway stations;
6.) The main station of the model has to have:
— industrial ways (whenever possible allowing area);
7.) Ways of the main station (useful is long) — have to be straight lines, for a possibility of shunting works and to free coupling P.S.
8.) The device of ways of the station has to have — the main way (without deviations), through all station (whenever possible allowing area);
9.) In the device of a shunting extract to have — the useful length equal of the greatest useful length of priyomo-dispatch ways in the conditions of this station (which is whenever possible allowing the area);
10.) In the device of ways — to have the reverse deadlock, for opportunities of the shunting locomotive during the work with sorting of cars;
11.) To put in the device of ways of the station from each direction to have — access for replacement of locomotives under structures, with minimization of algorithms of their maneuvering on the station, with care in depot or return from him under structure (whenever possible allowing area);
12.) At interface of the return curves — obligatory use of a direct insert between them;
13.) For stations together with their infrastructure, traveling (on funnymen of entrance arrows) and also bridges, platforms and viaducts — in a profile of a way to have the horizontal platform;
14.) An arrangement of traffic lights on the model — according to "The instruction on the alarm system on Russian Federation railway transport" (it is possible with conditions of rules of other countries);
15.) When leaving on a bias or descent from it — in a profile of a way it is obligatory to use the vertical interfacing curve;
16.) The gradient of biases (leading a bias) — shouldn't exceed values - 40 ‰
17.) Minimum used radius — 228 mm for (scale N) and 420 mm (for BUT);
18.) At design of an arrangement of city constructions on the model, without fail for each station (travel) — to consider existence:
— infrastructure near the station;
— city or settlement constructions;
— passing through or to the settlement of the highway;
19.) At design of an arrangement of office, technical or industrial constructions on the model — to consider existence:
— tunnel zones with arrangement by portals of entrances;
20.) At design of an arrangement of a landscape — to consider such elements as:
— arrangement of ways to embankments or dredging;
— the reservoir (the lake or the river) – isn't higher than the level of lower visible level of a way;
— heights or hollows (mountain or ravine);
— at sharp breaks existence of retaining walls;
21.) At design of an arrangement of traveling facilities — to provide convenience to access to shadow tunnel zones and also electrotechnical and electronic to the equipment of control of the model.
Certainly that the stated conditions already fit the definition "The railway exercise machine" more. However a task at design even more ambitious, capable to satisfy tastes even of the most exacting expert on the railroad. "P" - classification is meant as symbiosis of the classical model with functionality of the exercise machine.
(At the industrial training railway exercise machines the main objective to fulfill skills in the teams of train dispatchers. As a rule, they the enormous (not house) sizes, without landscaping. Rails are located in one plane, and the main emphasis is placed on automatic equipment.)
Problems of functionality which are put at design in a design of "P" - classification, nevertheless it is possible to position as the game model more. As the design scheme has landscape and architectural design, and it is a prepotent component. And the functionality on automation can be reduced to the initial level of control of trains and shooters in the manual mode. Further having increased it, in process of development of wishes in return from the potential for future model which is initially put at design. To read from considered bigger, always less expensive, than to modify not considered in smaller.
For descriptive reasons, to everything above to told, we will continue consider already on examples with what there can to be schemes of models fitting the definitions of different classifications.
Based on this received during the poll of respondents among admirers of a railway modelizm, the feature on which owing to the objective reasons there are keen enthusiasts of a model hobby who wouldn't like to go into details of systems of operation of railway equipment profoundly has come to light. For them the most important is not the technical, but estetic aspect of perception of the railroad.
At PAROVOZZO studio, the line of projects with simple internal infrastructure of traveling development is provided. As a rule, these projects have the traveling functionality minimized. This just consecutive train service along the set route. In certain cases with use of simple stations or traveling. At the same time the design design without fail also includes landscape and architectural design. As this factor is the basic and a priority in the choice of future model for start on rails of favourite exhibits.
Such projects are marked with the index - "U"
The simple U model - we will consider classifications on the example of the design scheme:
"152 — U"
The home model of the railroad, with basic game functions.
Main technical characteristics of the project "152 — U":
This project has a design of the island model.
— Dimensions (of highway of century) of 1520-x-1000-x-300 mm;
— The minimum radius of a curve – 228 mm;
— The maximum gradient of biases – 36 ‰ (3,6%);
— The number of railroad switches – 7 pieces;
— On the model the closed ring scheme is used;
Traveling development is calculated on:
— 1 stopping point (1 way);
— 1 industrial zone (loading stage);
The number of the operated trains – 2 +/-1).
— Total length of ways – 12,5 meters;
— A distance of passing of a cycle – 11,35 meters;
— The maximum useful length of a way at stations – 615 mm (the longest structure).