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How to made train layout

 
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Hello dear colleagues and admirers of the tiny railroad.

Obviously, most of fans of persons interested to construct the railroad model, initially don't put the main functionality which will be realized performed by their work subsequently.

— What will be my model, beautiful or multipurpose?
— And can be both?
— The model with the uncommon scheme for pokatushka?
— Or with the scheme which will be able to allow to equip in the future with ease imitation of devices and algorithms of the real railroad?

The answer at everyone the. And often he is absent just because there are no matters. Creation of the model it partly creativity. And creativity, it seems, shouldn't have borders. In other words: I do as my soul feels. And it is fine, but, with the small reservation. In a railway maketostroyeniye this hypothesis works not absolutely correctly. The main mistake of the beginning designers of railway models also consists in this tiny nuance. As well as in any engineering art, exclusively creative approach to business, leaves no chance to be the satisfied quality of the work performed by a technical component. Also important condition is initial representation of an ultimate goal. And the verified exact calculation of structural elements of future mechanism, will give the chance not to make mistakes at a construction stage. Not all have knowledge of specifications which needs to be put, especially in such difficult design as the railway model. It is rather difficult to provide all complex of the forthcoming work on the model, but it is feasible. It it is necessary not to allow as a result of a large number of unaccounted wishes, and to predict future potential of your model.

In most cases the traveling scheme undertakes the main idea of construction of the model. At forums, as a rule, there are a lot of discussions of regarding traveling schemes. Radiuses, shooters, traveling development. And for what all this? Paramount this what we want to see train service at operation of future model. That inspires us in this show. Perhaps, someone likes long stages, to someone train service on bridges, overpasses or through moving. To someone to behold as the train the enhanced draft climbs up to the mountain pass, and someone wishes to direct the shunting movement at the station. For a possibility of the maximum pleasure from the done work and satisfaction with final result, it is necessary to have a clear idea how it will be possible to carry out wishes on visualization of an idea.

And that if to try to consider a set of conditions in one project. To put more than potentially interesting game elements. Of course, it is possible within one project, but for this purpose there has to be at least, the correct traveling scheme.

If to consider that the model railroad — a toy, it absolutely not so. The railroad in scale, assumes all same fiziko-dynamic conditions, as well as real. Without watching even at that condition that the mass of bodies isn't scaled. Of course, there are admissions in favor of an igrushechnost, but they are accurately regulated and aren't boundless. Ensuring the safe and accident-free movement, when designing the model is a paramount task.

It is clear, to enter in the small area of the island model the correct traveling scheme very difficult task. It is more on forces to design engineers, than ordinary fans who find forces and ambitions independently to be engaged in such hard business as designing of the railway model. In most cases the first experience, the beginning modellers without knowing about operation of trains on the model, and over time having done already powerful part of work, are disappointed, that haven't considered (just on ignorance) some nuances owing to which operation of trains was not so impressionable as that it was expected, and interest it is lost.

For the previous 10 years to this day, I actively am engaged in design of schemes for railway models. From them 2 last years, I work as a part of model studio PAROVOZZO. In practice in detail I study fiziko-dynamic properties of large-scale models of the railroad, and the accumulated empirical experience is realized, through the works performed in model studio. For many years laborious work, it was succeeded to achieve qualitative results in this direction. A large amount of theoretical material, regarding schemes for models of the railroads some of which I want to share with fans of models of the railroad is also acquired.

To studying, scale N (1:160) has been chosen as the main direction, and it isn't casual. For anybody not a secret that the more small scale, the he is more exacting to the accuracy of observance of specifications at design, and in a consequence, and to quality of training of the basis for laying of a rail cloth. All this it is necessary in order that during designing having put a lot of effort, to receive exclusively WORKING mechanism - the railroad model. Here also it turns out that having mastered more tiny scale, to work with large (But also TT) it is much simpler.

Justification of arguments in the choice of the direction on scaling of processes, namely N scale, it is possible to give the following:
— Quality and properties of models of locomotives and cars in scale N, today at very high level.
— It allows to create scenarios for modeling of models, with characteristics approximate to real railway conditions.
— It is easier to transfer and embody dynamic properties of the most large-scale trains, in the smaller used space.
— The most tiny scale allows to visualize from outside better the working processes happening within the game field. At smaller – equal conditions, in comparison with the largest scales (the area, volume, weight).
— When modeling models N of scale, for creation of conditions of the automated movement, it is possible to use electronic accessories in accuracy same, as well as for other scales.

After carrying out a large number of experiments, there was an opportunity to characterize certain conclusions:

— As as without accident and without subjecting to high loadings, it is possible to operate on the model;
— What basic standards it is desirable and it is necessary to use and what it is better to refuse;
— Railway tasks which can be solved on means of models in scale N;
— The purposes satisfactions with game process, necessary for achievement, are formulated;
— Admissible parameters within which, the model, small on dimensions, can are determined is assured to cope with broad functionality of the real railroad.

For design of models, PAROVOZZO studio at which on the small-sized square there is an opportunity to receive the multipurpose model with expanded functionality on train dispatching has been chosen as the main priority direction.

Asking questions of profound studying of dynamic processes of the model railroad, special attention should be paid on the movement of tiny trains. How to make so that models of trains moved on rails smoothly, creating illusion of passing of the real train. It becomes clear that for this purpose in a design of the model it is necessary to put the determined norms and conditions.


On complexity projects can be divided into four groups of designations:

Simple projects with the index:                         — "U" (Uncomplicated)
Average complexity with the index:                   — "I (Intermediate)
Difficult projects with the index:                       — "D" (Difficult)
Very difficult with the index:                             — "P" (Professional)

In definition the professional multipurpose model of the railroad, in most difficult "P" - classifications are put the following conditions:

1.) The model has to — to have configuration from several levels;
2.) The scheme of the model — to consist of several stations, including long stages between them;
3.) The plan of a way — on which the movement of three and more trains in the passing or counter direction is realized;
4.) The plan of a way — to have the shadow station, with a sediment of trains, and to their departure in the counter direction from arrival on the turning loop (which is whenever possible allowing the area);
5.) Traveling development of stations — has to correspond to logic of design of the real railway stations;
6.) The main station of the model has to have:
— passenger ways;
— cargo park;
— shunting extract;
— traction (depot) ways;
— industrial ways (whenever possible allowing area);
— access roads;
7.) Ways of the main station (useful is long) — have to be straight lines, for a possibility of shunting works and to free coupling P.S.
8.) The device of ways of the station has to have — the main way (without deviations), through all station (whenever possible allowing area);
9.) In the device of a shunting extract to have — the useful length equal of the greatest useful length of priyomo-dispatch ways in the conditions of this station (which is whenever possible allowing the area);
10.) In the device of ways — to have the reverse deadlock, for opportunities of the shunting locomotive during the work with sorting of cars;
11.) To put in the device of ways of the station from each direction to have — access for replacement of locomotives under structures, with minimization of algorithms of their maneuvering on the station, with care in depot or return from him under structure (whenever possible allowing area);
12.) At interface of the return curves — obligatory use of a direct insert between them;
13.) For stations together with their infrastructure, traveling (on funnymen of entrance arrows) and also bridges, platforms and viaducts — in a profile of a way to have the horizontal platform;
14.) An arrangement of traffic lights on the model — according to "The instruction on the alarm system on Russian Federation railway transport" (it is possible with conditions of rules of other countries);
15.) When leaving on a bias or descent from it — in a profile of a way it is obligatory to use the vertical interfacing curve;
16.) The gradient of biases (leading a bias) — shouldn't exceed values - 40 ‰
17.) Minimum used radius — 228 mm for (scale N) and 420 mm (for BUT);
18.) At design of an arrangement of city constructions on the model, without fail for each station (travel) — to consider existence:
— station;
— infrastructure near the station;
— city or settlement constructions;
— passing through or to the settlement of the highway;
19.) At design of an arrangement of office, technical or industrial constructions on the model — to consider existence:
— tunnel zones with arrangement by portals of entrances;
— control office;
— railway moving;
— warehouse;
— plant or base.
20.) At design of an arrangement of a landscape — to consider such elements as:
— arrangement of ways to embankments or dredging;
— the reservoir (the lake or the river) – isn't higher than the level of lower visible level of a way;
— heights or hollows (mountain or ravine);
— at sharp breaks existence of retaining walls;
21.) At design of an arrangement of traveling facilities — to provide convenience to access to shadow tunnel zones and also electrotechnical and electronic to the equipment of control of the model.


Certainly that the stated conditions already fit the definition "The railway exercise machine" more. However a task at design even more ambitious, capable to satisfy tastes even of the most exacting expert on the railroad. "P" - classification is meant as symbiosis of the classical model with functionality of the exercise machine.

(At the industrial training railway exercise machines the main objective to fulfill skills in the teams of train dispatchers. As a rule, they the enormous (not house) sizes, without landscaping. Rails are located in one plane, and the main emphasis is placed on automatic equipment.)

Problems of functionality which are put at design in a design of "P" - classification, nevertheless it is possible to position as the game model more. As the design scheme has landscape and architectural design, and it is a prepotent component. And the functionality on automation can be reduced to the initial level of control of trains and shooters in the manual mode. Further having increased it, in process of development of wishes in return from the potential for future model which is initially put at design. To read from considered bigger, always less expensive, than to modify not considered in smaller.

For descriptive reasons, to everything above to told, we will continue consider already on examples with what there can to be schemes of models fitting the definitions of different classifications.

Based on this received during the poll of respondents among admirers of a railway modelizm, the feature on which owing to the objective reasons there are keen enthusiasts of a model hobby who wouldn't like to go into details of systems of operation of railway equipment profoundly has come to light. For them the most important is not the technical, but estetic aspect of perception of the railroad.
At PAROVOZZO studio, the line of projects with simple internal infrastructure of traveling development is provided. As a rule, these projects have the traveling functionality minimized. This just consecutive train service along the set route. In certain cases with use of simple stations or traveling. At the same time the design design without fail also includes landscape and architectural design. As this factor is the basic and a priority in the choice of future model for start on rails of favourite exhibits.


Such projects are marked with the index - "U"
The simple U model - we will consider classifications on the example of the design scheme:

"152 — U"  
The home model of the railroad, with basic game functions.

Main technical characteristics of the project "152 — U":

This project has a design of the island model.

— Scale N
— Dimensions (of highway of century) of 1520-x-1000-x-300 mm;
— The minimum radius of a curve – 228 mm;
— The maximum gradient of biases – 36 ‰ (3,6%);
— The number of railroad switches – 7 pieces;
— On the model the closed ring scheme is used;

Traveling development is calculated on:

— 1 station (2 ways);
— 1 travel (2 ways);
— 1 stopping point (1 way);
— 1 industrial zone (loading stage);
— 1 access road;

The number of the operated trains – 2 +/-1).

— Total length of ways – 12,5 meters;
— A distance of passing of a cycle – 11,35 meters;
— The maximum useful length of a way at stations – 615 mm (the longest structure).

Sketches of planning:


Video an example 3D. As can ride the train.



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On designing, the following classification is a little more difficult.
Such projects are marked with the index - "I"

The I model - we will consider classifications on the example of the design scheme:

"225 — I" 
The home model of the railroad, with basic game functions.

The concept of this scheme is calculated on ease. Any complex stations with tangled traveling development. This project isn't overloaded with algorithms of tasks. On him visualization of stages and stopping points is used. It isn't difficult to operate this model, even the child will understand.

Two-acceptable movement. In the scheme only two arrows and one deaf crosspiece for crossing of counter flows are used. The bezstrelochny returnable loop at the shadow level is used.

This traveling scheme can be left unguarded even in the absence of automatic equipment, with a condition of the fact that trains go one after another, and on shooters leave on a deviation to the right on external radius. In this case structures aren't crossed on the crosspiece at all.

This project is intended for those who without excess difficulties wish to enjoy quietly and easy train service from the collection. Within the game field it is possible to place four structures quietly. If there is desire to switch arrows, this function is provided too. Their of everything 2, is very convenient to watch. By means of arrows it is possible to redirect streams and to change a poocheryodnost of trains.
It is possible to put elementary protection against cross collisions. When switching an arrow to the crossed direction, before the intersection the small insert is de-energized. And already any structure won't get on the intersection closed for crossing.

It is also possible to use this scheme under the DCC management. To adjust large-scale speed and to install the system of automatic lock-out with traffic lights (semaphores).

Let's say we start several electric trains. We establish the movement in such a way that electric trains stop at each platform. And those electric trains which are on stages and catch up in a tail standing on conditional disembarkation of passengers, slow down at previous to a stopping point, a block and local yellow signal of the traffic light. If absolutely close sit down on a tail, then ottormazhivatsya on forbidding red not to crash into a tail to the standing train. And so on all system. Watching the model at such automatic equipment it is possible to see "waves" of trains. In total as on real railway. On fact-finding video for this scheme it is simulated as it is possible to steer 3 trains, with a stop of trains on stopping points and as structures are redirected and ranged.



Main technical characteristics of the 225 — I project:

This project has a design of the island model.

— Scale N
— Dimensions (of highway of century) of 2250-x-1250-x-300 mm;
— The minimum radius of a curve – 250 mm;
— The maximum gradient of biases – 32 ‰ (3,2%);
— The number of railroad switches – 2 pieces;
— The number of deaf crossings – 1 piece;
— On the model the closed traveling scheme is used;

Traveling development is calculated on:

— 2 stopping points (1 way);

The number of the operated trains – 3 +/-1).

— Total length of ways – 23,6 meters;
— A distance of passing of a cycle – 16,10 meters;
— The maximum useful length of a way at stations – 700 mm (the longest structure).

Sketches of planning:


Video an example 3D. As can ride the train.



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On designing, demanding from the master of certain skills and knowledge, the following classification is rather difficult.
Such projects are marked with the index - "D"

D models - we will consider classifications on the example of the design scheme:

"156 — D"
The home model of the railroad, with expanded functionality.

In some way it is interpretation "152-U"
However, due to essential change of characteristics of the top station, and an adjunction to her of several industrial zones, depot, a shunting extract, the geometry of all model at design had to be reconstructed.

Necessary condition of modernization "152-U", insignificant expansion of dimensions of the model on 4 cm in length and on 2 cm in width was.

Invariable was only the lower travel. He has continued to perform the function. Its capacity is quite enough for this purpose to cope with model traffic, mostly traffic hasn't strongly increased due to expansion of opportunities of the top station.
The main semantic and technical loading of the model, lays down on it. The main movement on the model remains in the same normal mode, as well as in the previous facilitated 152-U version.

Now about changes in comparison with the facilitated version.
The station has been postponed for the opposite side. It was necessary to expand this part of the city.
The branch to a loading stage on a motor depot, has been left, has undergone only little changes in a configuration of a way.
The separate branch on oil depot has been added. The structure of oil depot two-acceptable with the reverse deadlock, for convenience of maneuvering. The way from oil depot on the cargo station lies through the main course.
The project assumes, the depot on two stalls, for the small model of it is quite enough.
The device of the industrial zone is developed.
The industrial zone consists, of a branch on the concrete plant and also a separate branch to several warehouse warehouses (free appointment) with travel for convenience of maneuvering.
In the device of a way the configuration of biases is changed. Due to implantation in the main course of an arrow for a branch on oil depot, it was necessary to add length of the horizontal platform. Together with the overpass, this part of the line, is the intermediate platform in a long bias, between the top and lower station. At the same time nevertheless no more than 36 ‰ were succeeded to keep rather flat and passable bias.

---------------------------

Main technical characteristics of the 156-D project:

This project has a design of the island model.

— Scale N
— Dimensions (of highway of century) of 1560-x-1020-x-300 mm;
— The minimum radius of a curve – 228 mm;
— The maximum gradient of biases – 36 ‰ (3,6%);
— The number of railroad switches – 22 pieces;
— On the model the closed ring scheme is used;

Traveling development is calculated on:

— 1 station (4 ways);
— 1 travel (2 ways);
— 1 stopping point (1 way);
— 4 industrial zones (oil products, concrete, warehouses, loading stage);
— 4 access roads;
— 1 shunting extract;
— 1 reverse deadlock;
— 1 depots (2 stalls);

The number of the operated trains – 4 +/-1).

— Total length of ways – 18,5 meters;
— A distance of passing of a cycle – 11,37 meters;
— The maximum useful length of a way at stations – 615 mm (the longest structure).

Sketches of planning:


Video an example 3D. As can ride the train.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

One more model on the basis of "D" - classifications, we will also consider on the example of the design scheme:

"180-D"
The home model of the railroad, with expanded functionality.

The 180-D project – in it the original concept initially designed, but in a consequence strongly limited under the terms of T.Z. which is earlier made by PAROVOZZO studio, and nevertheless, successfully proved American Riviera model

Need to develop the model, compact on dimensions, with existence of the pronounced long stages including imitation of a heavy profile of a way (rises descents) was the main objective on functionality of the model. Two stations which are also opened the raznourovnevykh connected by these stages. At the same time not to overload visual prospect with a strong interlacing of lines what it would be esthetically favorable to visual perception. One more of project conditions to direct train service in such a way that departing from one of stations, they arrived to another in an opposite direction. As stations are located though at the different levels, but geographically in parallel, and in uniform general visual prospect.

The task is almost not feasible taking into account that the model shouldn't exceed dimensions of 1800-x-900 mm and have a gradient of biases no more than 40 ‰
A large number of concepts wasn't accepted, because of discrepancy at least with one of the set criteria. However, after long miscalculations and calculations nevertheless the right decision has been found.

The general concept of the scheme of the model – single-line.
On the model two certain stations are presented.

The top station has an adjunction to her of several industrial zones, depot and a shunting extract.
The lower travel two-acceptable, serves for implementation of the admission of oncoming trains.
Visually the raznoraspolozhennykh of level of a rail cloth allows to see perception on the model four.

The scheme of the top station assumes – depot on one stall, and one separate way of equipment of locomotives.
The way to the industrial zone consists: from a branch to several warehouse warehouses (free appointment), with a branching on separate deadlock lines.
Also the way from the loading stage located on a motor depot approaches the top station.

In the device of a profile of a way, difficult configuration of biases. At the same time nevertheless no more than 37 ‰ were succeeded to keep rather flat and passable bias.


Main technical characteristics of the 180-D project:

This project has a design of the island model.

— Scale N
— Dimensions (of highway of century) of 1800-x-900-x-300 mm;
— The minimum radius of a curve – 228 mm;
— The maximum gradient of biases – 37 ‰ (3,7%);
— The number of railroad switches – 14 pieces;
— On the model the closed ring scheme is used;

Traveling development is calculated on:

— 1 station (4 ways);
— 1 travel (2 ways);
— 2 industrial zones (warehouses, loading stage);
— 2 access roads;
— 1 shunting extract;
— 1 site of traction ways (depot on 1 stall, 1 equipment way);

The number of the operated structures – 3 +/-1).

— Total length of ways – 15,3 meters;
— A distance of passing of a cycle – 9,90 meters;
— The maximum useful length of a way at stations – 615 mm (the longest structure).
— Distance of stages – 366,1 cm / 377,3 cm.

Sketches of planning:


Video an example 3D. As can ride the train.

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The most difficult for designing, the following classification is. Demands from the master of wide experience and professional ability. Is suitable for experts on railway business with profound knowledge of theoretical and practical base.
Such projects are marked with the index - "P"

The P model - we will consider classifications on the example of the design scheme:

"225 — P"
The professional model of the railroad, with expanded functionality.

This project of the model has incorporated all advantages of the railway exercise machine, at the same time, without having lost esthetic properties of the classical railway model.
In the concept of the traveling scheme of this project it was succeeded to contain the full-fledged station with the transit passenger and cargo traffic. Expanded network of access lines. A full-fledged stage with imitation of biases. Remote travel with an access branch. And also the combined, two linear shadow station with the integrated turning loop in both directions. Special attention is paid to shunting work on assembly and sorting of freight trains.

For a basis of the author's concept of "Parovozzo-shunter", shunting strategy published in the seventies the last century in the USA and England namely such as "Timesaver" and "Inglenook Sidings" have been taken. Having combined together outdated strategy, significantly having added with logic of completeness of actions, having processed schematic traveling diagrams and having added with a full-fledged shunting extract, it has turned out to transfer interrelation of mechanisms and devices of the real railroad in a miniature.

The lower station has an adjunction to her of several industrial zones. The separate branch on oil depot departs from the station. The structure of oil depot two-acceptable with the reverse deadlock, for convenience of maneuvering. Also separate lines leave the station on a food warehouse, an industrial warehouse, an elevator, scrap metal loading, car-repair depot, locomotive depot with ways of equipment. In an opposite part of the station the access road serves the coal terminal of a boiler room, a loading stage, the post terminal.
The top travel (behind the pass) two-acceptable, serves for implementation of the admission of oncoming trains. Also ways of travel are adjoined by a branch from sawmill.

At the conceptual scheme of the model there is a shadow station located at the lower level on 6 ways. The turning loop, the author's concept of "Parovozzo-loop" is integrated into the scheme of the shadow station. Thus, it is possible to carry out the movement with a turn from the even direction in odd, each train on the model, in the infinity mode. Also he can be used for visual concealment and overtaking of consecutive trains of the passing direction.

Main technical characteristics of the project "225 — P":

This project has a design of the island model.

— Scale N
— Dimensions (of highway of century) of 2250-x-1180-x-400 mm;
— The minimum radius of a curve – 228 mm;
— The maximum gradient of biases – 37 ‰ (3,7%);
— The number of railroad switches – 47 pieces;
— On the model the closed ring scheme is used.

Traveling development is calculated on:

— 1 station (8 ways);
— 1 travel (2 ways) + the adjoining access road;
— 1 shadow station (6 ways) + a turning loop in both directions;
— 8 industrial zones (oil products, elevator, warehouses, loading stage, boiler room, mail, scrap metal, sawmill);
— 5 access roads;
— 1 shunting extract;
— 1 reverse deadlock;
— 1 site of traction ways (depot on 2 stalls + 1 equipment way);

The number of the operated trains – 12 +/-2).

— Total length of ways – 40,3 meters;
— A distance of passing of a cycle – 15,16 meters;
— The maximum useful length of a way at stations – 707 mm (the longest structure).

— Distance of stages – 534,3 cm / 441,0 cm / 222,7 cm.

Sketches of planning:


Video an example 3D. As can ride the train.
EXPANDED VERSION OF THE TRACK PLANE
Thus, we have complete idea what can be the railroad model.

 
 
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